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©1966, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. New York 
Library of Congress Card Catalogue Number 66-28456 Printed in the United States of America 















Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Library and Archives 

Originality, contrary to popular notions, does not come from strained and eccentric 
gestures, but is the result of a probing attitude and of courage. The probing is applied 
to an inherited vision which, always in need of skeptical reevaluation, requires abrupt 
replacement when it outlives its truthfulness. Courage is needed to challenge reigning 
assumptions and to confront and admit the evidence of one's own insights. 

Jean Dubuffet, in this proper sense of the word, is among the most probing, courage- 
ous and therefore original artists of our time. Setting himself against a preponderant 
esthetic orientation that is founded on the Greco-Roman ideal of beauty, he rein- 
forced, perhaps with more consistency and relentlessness than anyone before him, a 
sensibility that saw in prehistoric expression a more relevant precursor for the art of 
our time. Far from exhausting himself in this massive effort he subsequently found 
the strength for constant self-renewal, abandoning his own gains as he immersed 
himself again and again in new searches that bore no certain promise of results. 

The VHourloupe phase which constitutes the core of Dubuffet's work since 1962 is 
only the most recent of such periodic renewals. One may recall the already well-known 
sequences of the African Landscapes of 1948, the Corps de Dames of 1950, the Fleur 
de Barbe series of 1959, and the Materiologies of 1960 to mention a few of the 
clearly identifiable contents and corresponding form images that preoccupied 
Dubuffet in the past. These and other phases of Dubuffet's work were seen in the full 
retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in 1962 when the New York 
public was given an. opportunity to follow the artist's development from his virtual 
beginnings in the early 1940's to the current idiomatic departure. VHourloupe which, 
separated from the long lineage of Dubuffet's previous work, is placed under a 
magnifying glass in this exhibition, constitutes a radical break with earlier modes and 
furnishes a dramatic example of Dubuffet's capacity for self-renewal. It is a phase that 
preoccupied the artist longer and more intensively than any previous one, allowing 
him to give expression to a rich diversity of thought within the defined framework of 
a particular formal premise. 

The artist has followed the exhibition plan with attentive interest thereby contributing 
importantly to the selection that was carried out by Lawrence Alloway, the Guggen- 
heim Museum's Curator. 

Thomas M. Messer, Director 


/ am grateful to Jean Dubuffet for discussing in detail ivith me the choice of works for this 
exhibition. Ursula Schmitt of the Dubuffet Secretariat in Paris was helpful. I wish to thank 
Diane Waldman for the bibliography; Susan Tumarkin, editor of the catalogue; and Jane 
Umanoff for arranging the transportation of the works. My special thanks are due to Mary 
Grigoriadis for her work on every phase of both the exhibition and the catalogue. 



Mademoiselle Carmen Bebiano, Paris 

Mr. and Mrs. George Block, Hong Kong 

Mr. and Mrs. Leigh B. Block, Chicago 

Suzanne Cizey, Paris 

Mr. and Mrs. Ralph F. Colin, Jr., Neiv York 

Edouard Cournand, New York 

Mr. and Mrs. Miles Fiterman, Minneapolis 

Robert Fraser, London 

J.-F. Jaeger, Paris 

Dr. and Mrs. Arthur E. Kahn, New York 

Max Loreau, Brussels 

The Kate Maremont Foundation, Chicago 

Trevor F. Peck, Montreal 

Mr. and Mrs. Elias M. Pinto, New York 

The Pinto Collection, Paris 

Jean Planque, Paris 

Mr. and Mrs. Otto Preminger, Neiv York 

David Talbot Rice, London 

Mrs. Sidney Solomon, Neiv York 

Mr. and Mrs. W . B. Dixon Stroud, West Grove, Pennsylvania 

L'Etat francais 

The Archives for Decorative Art, University of Lund, Sweden 

The Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, Dallas 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam 

Galerie Beyeler, Basel 
Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris 
Robert Elkon Gallery, New York 
Robert Fraser Gallery, London 
Saidenberg Gallery, New York 



(July 1962 to June 1965) 

This new series begins without transition in July 1962 with the small book entitled UHour- 
loupe, which was followed by a series of about fifteen gouaches with collage and another of 
elements (personnages) painted in gouache on paper to be cut out and used in compositions 
of this kind. 

The theme of urban sites (Paris street) which had occupied me in the preceding months, 
continued to appear often in these gouaches (Street with Pipe Smoker, Houses of One's 
Own, Continuum of the City and numerous others. There were some, however, like Hunt 
Scene or the figures of dogs (Dog 2, Dog 6) that were far from this subject. 

The same theme of urban streets, treated for so long, is more marked in the five gouaches of 
the Paris Plaisir group, done in November 1962. to which a sixth was added very late, in 
May 1964. 

At this time, there was only one painting produced [Run the Streets, the site of which still 
relates, although very allusively, to the street) . 

After a three month interruption (occupied by the installation of the collections of TArt Brut 
returned from the U.S.A. and by the editing of various texts) there appeared in February 1963 
a series of a dozen gouaches, several again incorporating collage, which break completely with 
the theme of urban life and present almost unidentifiable personnages or objects relatable to 
the drawings in the small book of UHourloupe (House with two trees, Locus putatus, etc.). 

Two small paintings (Transit and Exploits and Glories) are in the same vein as these gouaches 
(February 1963) ; however the following paintings, also made during February, (The Street 
Shatters Euthusiasm and many others, including the large painting Puppet City, then in May. 
Legend of the Street) return to the theme of the streets of Paris, in the vein of the Paris 
Plaisir gouaches and far from the spirit of L/Hourloupe. 

In March 1963. two paintings Uneven and Ambling and The Rich Fruit of Error were done 
with others in the same new vein in which the style of L'Hourloupe is affirmed and the theme 
of the Parisian street is completely eliminated. 

A series of a dozen gouaches, in May and June 1963 (the group of Theater of Vagaries, then 
Crease in the Log, Discharging of the Error, Drudging Camel, The Aberrater, etc.) expands 
L'Hourloupe. The systematic blue and red stripes used until now will be joined by a second 
style to be developed for many years concurrently with the first. 


It is this second line of l'Hourloupe which is manifested in many of the paintings made in the 
following months (Clean Up Sonny, "Mouchon Berloque", Opera Sconce, and then in July, 
Being and Seeming and The Life of the Family.) 

In contrast, belonging to the first style, and coming more directly in the line of the painting 
Uneven and Defective were the two paintings done in July. Bank of Ambiguities and Err and 

Isolated personnages standing against a black background were done in June and July, like 
The Couriers; there are also paintings composed of more parts (in the same vein as the 
gouaches like Street with Pipe Smoker) in which personnages figuring in the delirious writing 
of the small book L'Hourloupe are arbitrarily inserted in scenes treated in a different and 
more immediately allusive manner. This is the case with The Pastoral Life I and The Gay 

In August and September 1963. some works were painted in \ence which may be con- 
sidered foreign to the cycle of L'Hourloupe. like Landscapes of the Straits of Dover, The 
Automobile on the Black Road, relatable to small country landscapes (gouaches and paint- 
ings) of 1943. and also one isolated painting (Paris the Festival). These in addition to the 
series of Paris Plaisir gouaches mentioned above, the paintings made in February (The Street 
Shatters Enthusiasm and others of the same group, and Puppet City) and those made in May 
(Center City and Legend of the Street), are linked to the Paris Circus style and not to that 
of l'Hourloupe. 

A return to the line properly called l'Hourlope occurred in October 1963 and has been pur- 
sued without interruption in all the works of the following months and until this day (The 
Tide of l'Hourloupe, The Cosmopolite, Bench of Prosperity, etc.) . 

From January 1964 (Parade of Objects) objects and utensils appeared (drawings in marker 
in February, drawings in chinese ink or marker in April), and The Chair and L'Hourloupe 
Cab were painted in April. 

These objects and utensils (Counterpoint to the Tools, Society of Tools) constitute the con- 
stant theme of most of the works done from May until October. Listed below are the objects 
which individually give rise, in the following months, to groups of paintings: 

the typewriter 
the lamp and the scale 
the fishing boat 
the wheel barrow 
the bed 

Mention must be made of two paintings of July (with which several gouaches are associated) 
showing houses of Etaples (Vogue of Television in the Picard and The Fantastic Village). 

From October to December 1964. recourse to objects ceased for a period and people inserted 
in landscapes (The Bolter, Red Beret, Nimble and Rescuing Hand, Married Couple Making a 
Visit) or isolated figures (Old Man with a Cane, The Doleful One) are treated constantly. 


Jean Dubuffet. Page from L'Hourloupe, 1963. (actual size) 

In February, the objects and utensils are manifested again and the new themes treated in 
this framework are: the tap 

the washbasin 

the open book 

the clock 

Simultaneously with the works concerning these objects, from March to June 1965, gouaches 
and paintings were executed destined for large ceramic decorations for the Faculte des 
Lettres de Nanterre. 

Translated by Mary Grigoriadis 



by Lawrence Alloway 

Dubuffet's account of the Twenty-Third Period of My Works records the develop- 
ment of L'Hourloupe since its sudden beginning in July 1962. As he points out, other themes 
persisted even as the possibilities of L'Hourloupe flourished, and by mid-1963 completely 
absorbed him. Imagery of the preceding period, Paris Circus, continued, though modified 
by the shift in his outlook: the scenes which began in a gay celebrative spirit ended in a 
more spectral, comparatively estranged, style. There are overlaps, too, in the mingling of 
earlier and new periods, with the insertion of the new figures into soft fields held over from 
the earlier work. (In addition, in October 1962, Dubuffet executed one of his Materiologies.) 
The present exhibition does not sample every one of Dubuffet's moves during the period, 
but aims to isolate the dominant elements in his new work. The bulk of his recent work is in 
this style and the momentum which has produced an abundance of work in the past four 
years is keyed to the imagery and concepts of L'Hourloupe. 

To Dubuffet's descriptive chronology we can add the fact that the paintings, as well 
as the drawings, are dated to the day. Thus the transformation of known forms and the 
emergence of new ideas can be traced with unusual exactness. Dubuffet's copious produc- 
tion puts the spectator who follows the contour of the work in time in a position to share the 
ongoing process of work as well as the spectacle of each completed work singly. Dubuffet has 
taken care that where possible L'Hourloupe should be shown in detail, with a kind of 
lavishness geared to his own productivity. It is essential, for a close view of an artist, to be 
able to make cross-references within a period, so that an internal standard emerges, derived 
from the work in question. We can see the mutual exchange of media-switches, intensification 
of some possibilities and forgetfulness of others (and the latter's sudden return). The large 
scale showing of the earlier L'Hourloupe and late Paris Circus at the Palazzo Grassi, in 
1964, for example, is a model for the present exhibition. Instead of the traditional humanist 
idea of high selectivity revealing master-works, we have a concept of the total show. 1 If a 
retrospective is like an archipelago, the tops of a mountain range showing above water, a 
total show investigates one of the mountains all over. 

The sketches in the initiatory book L'Hourloupe are crisp and neat, counter to the 
popular expectation of Dubuffet's work as being brutal and shaggy. Each page of the book 
carries an emblem, derived from a duck, coffee pot, hunter, gendarme, umbrella, cow, mos- 
quito, etc., and surrounded by ironically aberrant inscriptions, such as Moucetic for 
moustique and J eandarme for gendarme. The book is prophetic, both in iconography and in 


style. The drawings are made with red and blue ballpoint pens; in place of the emphases 
possible with a split nib, the succession of pauses and replenishments, the ball-point gives a 
hard, unaccented, continuous line. In 1964 the drawings with markers develop the unaccented 
line further; the evenly plump track of a felt pen. strongly but softly, produces a quasi- 
streamline. Pitchers and rifles, houses and scissors, have the thick, animistic look of General 
Motors automobiles of the late 40s. By March 1963, after some preliminary gouaches of single 
figures, the style to be called L'Hourloupe is clearly stated in Uneven and Ambling and The 
Rich Fruit of Error. In these, as in other early L'Hourloupe paintings, hard outlines, direc- 
tional stripes, and a palette restricted to red, white, and blue (and black) were used to create 
all-over fields. The personnages 2 are always present but meshed and camouflaged in the 
linear continuum. Is it necessary to remark that Dubuffet is never an abstract painter? Not 
only do his figures exist within the webs of L'Hourloupe. but even his least accented all-over 
works are conceived as parts of an existing world. 3 

There are two types of all-over painting in the earlier L'Hourloupe period, though 
both exemplify the kind of organization that Dubuffet defined in connection with another 
artist : "the center of the picture is everywhere all at once ; all being is center". 4 First is the 
hard-contoured, directionally-striped group ; second the equally packed, but more variously 
colored, more phantasmogoric, group, including Crease in the Log and Virtual Virtue. 
Gnomic heads and shredded bodies make focal points in the grinding milieu. The paint of 
this sub-series within the group of all-over paintings has creamy weight and a sensuous color 
play, unlike the restricted palette of the, in my opinion, dominant sub-series. The crowded 
streets, the well-inhabited facades of the houses in the Paris Circus paintings, are unlike these 
works in that the location, the human place, is never in doubt. Here are crowds whose 
origin, except in the creative act. is blocked to us. The title, Virtual Virtue, is one of those 
which, as Max Loreau has pointed out, "lead expressly, insistently, to the Kingdom of the 
Virtual"/' Thus, what is being proposed, in these virulently manic crowd paintings, seems 
to be a shift away from the unadulterated humanity of Dubuffet's earlier work. Without any 
diminution of the figurative element, the work seems to connect less intimately with the 
human. If this is so, we have to find a form different from the primal imagery of Dubuffet's 
main work though not. on the other hand, non-figurative. 

One group, then, with brightly-colored faces in the jumble, is lyrical, though with 
hints of claustrophobia in the swarms of forms. The other group has a sinuous but rigid 
linearism, with adjacent areas interlocking like jealous countries, neither able to relax the 
pressure first. Whereas, in the past, Dubuffet seemed to work outwards, in a slow stretch or 
an impatient lunge, from the center of a glob of material, here he lays contours down on the 
canvas, as hard as cables, drawn taut from point to point. The colors are red. white, and blue, 
shading off into purples and violets, sometimes like the color of hung meat. The density of the 
stripes and their directional play produce a kind of frozen abundance, very different from 
the earth-flesh cluster of colors and textures of his preceding work. The all-over composition 
of this first phase of L'Hourloupe became less important through 1964 and 1965 with an 
important exception. The big paintings of 1965. Epokhe and Nunc Stans, the largest that 


Dubuffet has made, return to the pulverized personnages, the camouflaged crowds. In Nunc 
Stems, for instance, numerous figures are rife, clear in preparatory sketches, but plunged 
into ambiguity in the painting itself. Given the mood of these paintings, their concealment is 
more like ambush than acquiescence to formal requirements. 

James Fitzsimmons has pointed out, in the best whole view of the artist that has yet 
been written, that Dubuffet's color derives from the "natural colors, of stone, old walls, bark, 
sand, heather, of metals and minerals, of clay, autumn leaves, humus and wet earth, of flesh 
and grass and the bleached colors of the desert". 6 This color range from flesh to earth char- 
acterizes most of his work from 1945 to the early 60s; therefore his recent reliance on red 
and blue in L'Hourloupe is a drastic change, greater, in fact, than neatness and precision 
of form. Dubuffet's development has alternated between the amorphous and the crystalline, 
between Matter Painting and the sharply defined Tableaux d'assemblage, 1955-56. The latter 
works, done after he moved to Vence. were described by Fitzsimmons as "equivocal . . . orna- 
mental gardens". 7 The precise arrays of small forms, cut from prepared canvases, echoed 
the dry stony ground of Vence in their clarity. In this respect the crystalline imagery of 
Dubuffet is like the amorphous; neither are separated from common human experience. The 
encrusted portraits of Mirobolus, Macadam et Cie., 1945-46, are concerned with human 
identity at the level of survival and historical time, not with individual gesture and personal 
time. The Corps de Dames, 1951, are splayed bodies, the torso like an island from which 
arms and legs sprout like flowers or roots. The sexual nudes, like his primal portraits (all 
male ) , and his close-ups of "the foot of the wall" in Vence. are part of Dubuffet's power of 
pulling everything he touches, the ferocious and the formless, into the human reach of art. 

This policy of copious rehumanization. in opposition to the formal preoccupations of 
much earlier 20th century art, extends through his work from 1944 to 1962 without a break. 
The reason one hesitates to say it was present earlier is owing to the fact that it was only in 
1942, at the age of 41. that Dubuffet finally adopted the role of artist, after aborted earlier 
attempts. Within two years, his personal and technical experiences coincided to form the 
sustaining ground for two decades of extraordinary work. The reasons that one raises the 
doubt as to whether the work of the past four years is really comparable in meaning must be 
argued now. 

Dubuffet. with his dislike for the forms of classically-descended art. has organized 
an alternative to it by more means than that of his art, though that would have been enough. 
To oppose the Renaissance-derived idea of professionalism in the artist, he devised the theory 
and began the collection of FArt Brut. L'Art Brut is the art of children, prisoners, mediums, 
schizophrenics, and intense provincials, anybody who is pre-art, sub-art. or beyond art defined 
as a professional activity. In 1947 Dubuffet's collection opened in Rene Drouin's Gallery as 
the "Foyer de l'Art Brut", moved to a pavillion in Gallimard's garden, and then, in 1951, 
was moved to the United States. Alfonso Ossorio housed the collection, by now consisting of 
about a thousand objects, at East Hampton. In the winter of 1962-63. Dubuffet brought the 
collection back to Paris, organized a kind of private museum for it, and began the publica- 
tion of a series of monographs based on the artists, largely written by himself (see bibliog- 
raphy nos. 3-8). 


The kind of art Dubuffet collects under the term Art Brut is familiar as part of the 
20th century expansion of the term art into the general environment. This operation has 
taken many forms, one of which is the promotion of anthropological and psychotic material 
by means of a capacious rather than a restrictive esthetic. 8 Dubuffet's early work, because it 
was rugged and raw. was often compared to l'Art Brut, either because critics were unfamiliar 
with unprofessional art or because they were carried away by the word "brut". At any rate. 
l'Art Brut does not consist of savage and simple images, the awful imagery of a primordial 
mind erupting in art; on the contrary, psychotic and lay art is more usually the product of 
compulsion and systematic delusion. It is not the violence of a psychotic, which occurs in 
this world, as Dubuffet has pointed out in conversation, that shapes his art. On the contrary, 
psychotic and lay art tend to create an alien realm by means of a complex self-referring 
system. It is an order that is closed to us, an order with hidden co-ordinates, that character- 
izes Art Brut. Such is the work which Dubuffet has been studying and writing on in the past 
four years. In fact, we can now guess why Dubuffet, to whom the collection had become 
onerous in 1951. should now want it under his hands again. It relates to the recent develop- 
ment in his work, with its move from the gestural and the textural to the systematic and the 
linear. In fact, it was after the drawings of July 1962, for the book UHourloupe, that 
Dubuffet's interest in the collection intensified. 

The reflex by which order is regarded as classical, by which systems are invested 
with inevitability, is blocked by Dubuffet. The world of L'Hourloupe is logical but artificial, 
systematic but arbitrary. The decorative quality is like the clenched order of the schizophrenic 
artist, whose uncheckable logic works against our environment, neither with nor out of it. 
The outlining is the cloisonnee of alienation. L'Hourloupe is a turning away from the world 
and the construction of a fantastic alternative to where we are: a parallel world produced 
by elaboration and repetition of pattern. Writing about L'Hourloupe, Dubuffet defended 
painters who are unconcerned to illuminate reality, which is, in one form or other, the usual 
ultimate exploration of art's purpose. "Perhaps because they are impelled by nature to crea- 
tion rather than to understanding or possibly because they have so little trust in the notion of 
truth that the idea seems futile, they decide to present (and present themselves) things which 
do not exist . . . can not a man in all legitimacy choose, once at least— and why not, perhaps, 
once for all?— not truth (a shifting thing anyway), but change and delusion?" (For "they", 
read Dubuffet.) This sounds remote from the reactions of critics who regarded L'Hourloupe 
as an affirmation of decorative style. In fact, bright color and linear patterning are a screen 
which Dubuffet has wrenched into fresh meanings. The formal elaboration of these paintings 
is an obstacle to identification, a withdrawal from the pervasive humanity of the earlier work. 
Stereotyped patterns and a horror vacui makes the new work deceptively bright and lyrical. 
It is this basis of L'Hourloupe in the arbitrary and the compulsive that separates Dubuffet's 
planar shapes from Cubism, though a resemblance has been suggested by some critics. 

The large painting Parade of Objects, early 1964, and drawings of single objects 
after that, begin the second phase of L'Hourloupe. This phase was indicated in the 
UHourloupe book, but the direction of the succeeding paintings had postponed their devel- 


opment. Among the personnages and animals were a coffee pot and an umbrella. In addition 
to the all-over figure compositions, Dubuffet painted a number of all-over still-lifes (such as 
Carnival of Objects and Counterpoint to the Tools, 1964), but the main emphasis is on single 
objects. These objects, bulking large in the painting, are the opposite of the status symbols 
of mid-century affluence. Tap. bottle, wheelbarrow, bed. are all objects that have grown 
anonymously from repeated similar use, rather than having been, as it were, suddenly formed 
by individual design. (Sears Roebuck not Olivetti or Eames).The wash-basins, though modern 
in design (note the tap fittings) , loose their newness in the chunky pattern which camouflages 
detail. The basin is structurally like a mortared wall made of irregular stones and bricks. 
Like the earlier tables of the artist (1951). incidentally, the wash-basins, beds, and gas 
stoves are closely identified with the canvas area, the outer limits of the image never far from 
the picture's edges. In seeing the painting we confront the object wholistically at the same 

These objects share with Dubuffet's early work a common anthropomorphism: the 
human contour is everywhere. The "face" of the clock is just that; coffee-pots resemble ges- 
turing personnages; the tap. on a huge scale, releases human correspondences usually con- 
cealed by our hands. These objects are isolated on a black ground. The endless stress of the 
all-over paintings is arrested by these images, which are like monumentalized segments of 
the artist's fertile continuum of matter. An essential step in establishing a connection of the 
objects with their users, ourselves, is the device of enlarged dimensions. The dilated bottle, 
with its honeycombed interior, becomes an analogue of our body and its contents, thus echo- 
ing Dubuffet's earlier organic imagery. The Utopian Utensils, as Dubuffet calls them, might 
appear to be the product of a Rabelaisean power of fusing the everyday and the fantastic, the 
common and the gigantic. 

In these works Dubuffet has, in effect, replaced the still life by the object. Still life, 
as defined in the early twentieth century, was especially valued because of the neutrality of 
the articles. The use of pots and pans, books and clocks, left the artist free to concentrate 
on problems of organization, without being distracted by meanings beyond the purely formal. 
The objects of Dubuffet. on the contrary, possess both human sources and body analogies. 
Instead of the interrelationship of "pure" forms, the humanity of objects seems inescapable. 
Hence the importance of the single object which is monumentally present and yet complex 
in implication, as an alternative to a formal view of the still life as relational. To Roger Fry. 
for instance, the still life was a tranquil realm, from which all non-esthetic factors were ban- 
ished. We can see much of Dubuffet's work as an alternative to this hygenic concept of objects. 
His sense of vital life has found validation in both the Sahara Desert and the streets of Paris. 

Within the massive contours of the pseudo-Rabelaisean objects, the mighty pots, 
the taps for giants, however, there is little of that flow of primal and intimate textures that 
evoked common human experience. As these objects dilate and solidify, they become not 
more intimate but more alien. Their distance is not the detachment of a formal view of still 
life which intervenes between us and the recognized objects. Within the familiar contour 
everything spreads into a web of divisions and color patches that block our initial responses. 


Instead of continuous matter, there is a labyrinth; instead of the primal field, there is a puzzle 
that jumbles and divides the object. The utensils, as common objects, are large, there, pres- 
ent, but the qualifying "Utopian" indicates a counter possibility. The Utopian is that which is 
conceptual, unreal, and, at least for the present, unusable. It is the Utopian element which 
signifies the alienation, the estrangement, which characterizes the period of L'Hourloupe. 

Typical images of Dubuffet have persisted through the new period, of course, among 
them the theme of the single personnage. bust, half-length, or seated. Whereas his earlier 
figures, spreading like pancakes before us or facing us like monoliths, supported empathic 
links with ourselves, the recent figures are counter-empathic, made of hard fins and mineral 
petals, like unfitting armor. The bodies bend and curve in ways that violate our own body- 
image. Thus they resemble the Utopian Utensils which seem, at first, common, but then open 
into arbitrary labyrinthine patterns that block recognition and kinship. The "hard" style of 
L'Hourloupe suits the monolithic object with an equivocal humanity and. of course, all-over 
painting, better possibly than the single figure. The single figures with their sinister, ornate 
crusts, seem too openly bizarre, like knights and warriors dressed to kill, whereas their pur- 
pose, and their definition, is more ambigious and complex in the all-over paintings. Dubuffet's 
art balances the quotidian and the fantastic ; he can be fantastic without affectation or fancy, 
and realistic without valuing the conventions of naturalism. The Castle of Bottles is one of 
the few pieces in which a metaphoric reference seems in excess of the realistic basis. On the 
other hand, the series of Houses, all of which are swung around the stone of the threshold, 
centers on a convincing metaphoric function. The point of entry is like the sex in one of the 
Corps de Dames, making the house into a fantastic, inhabitable body. 

The relation of the real and the fantastic, previously geared to vital phenomena, is 
changed in L'Hourloupe. Dubuffet proposes a new de-humanization of art. not like that of 
Ortega which is only art's autonomy distancing the world. The new work is a speculation on 
order itself as a self- referring system, separated from the organic world by the eloquence of 



1. The total show is not a retrospective, (which of necessity is usually a purified sample) but an almost 
complete showing of some coherent unit of an artist's life. Another example of this hitherto unknown 
fullness of information, would be the so-called Picasso Museum of Antibes, before it was depleted. 
The documentation of Guernica (dated sketches, work photographs) in which total data on the forma- 
tion of one work is available is comparable. "Total" is not literally true, but it means revealing enough 
of everything relevant to seriously typify a defined area in an artist's life. A concept of density replaces 
a belief in key-works and high moments. 

2. The French word personnage is kept throughout the titles (otherwise translated) . A personnage is, 
in dictionary usage, "a personnage. great person, somebody", more, that is to say, than a "personne". 
The overtones of Surrealist usage are appropriate, here, with Personnage holding hints of an appari- 
tional shock and irrational being. 

3. Apropos of his series of lithographs, Phenomena, tablets and slabs of evenly diffused marks, Dubuffet 
wrote: "a fragment of some sort detached from a continuous element, substances belonging to the 
realm of geography, geology, descriptive physics, biochemistry .. .my poetico-geography" (Philadel- 
phia Museum of Art. The Lithographs of Jean Dubuffet. November 18, 1964-January 10, 1965.) It is im- 
portant to stress the fundamentally allusive and referential character of Dubuffet's work, if one is to 
respond to his sense of scale. Given his different premise his scale is quite different from, and unrelated 
to, all-over paintings by American abstract artists. 

4. Jean Dubuffet. "Commentary". Ivan Albright Retrospective Exhibition, Art Institute of Chicago, 1964. 

5. Bibliography no. 16. 

6. James Fitzsimmons. "Jean Dubuffet: a short introduction to his work". Quadrum, 4. Brussels, 1957, 
pp. 27-50. 

7. Ibid. 

8. The definition of esthetics as pure visual display, unencumbered by meaning, has become increasingly 
restrictive in current art criticism. The alternative to a reductive esthetics, which functions to exclude 
as much as possible, is a copious esthetics, more descriptive than prescriptive. It would have to take 
in not only such extensions of the definition of art as l'Art Brut, but also iconography, and compound 
or mixed art forms, such as opera, movies, happenings. 

9. Bibliography no. 2. 



Media Description: Oil and vinyl paintings are on canvas unless otherwise stated: 
ink and gouache drawings are on paper unless otherwise stated. 
All measurements are in inches ; vertical precedes horizontal measurement. 
Dorics marked * not exhibited. 

1. PERSONNAGE. July 27, 1962. 
Gouache and collage. 26% x 19%' 
Collection D.B.C.. Paris. 

12. VIRTUAL VIRTUE. June 25. 1963. 
Oil, 38% x 51%". 
Lent bv Saidenberg Gallerv, New 'lork. 

2. PROFILE OF HEAD. July 29, 1962. 
Gouache and collage. 19% x 14%". 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. George Block. Hone: Kong 

13. OPERA SCONCE. Julv 4. 1963. 
Oil. 31% x 39%". 
Collection Suzanne Cizev. Paris. 

3. DOG. August 2, 1962. 

Gouache and collage. 19 V2 x 26%' 
Lent bv the artist. 

14. BANK OF AMBIGUITIES. Julv 17. 1963. 
Oil, 59 x 76%". 
Lent bv the artist. 

4. PERSONNAGE. August 30. 1962. 
Collage, 26% x 12y 4 ". 
Collection Mr. and Mrs. Otto Preminger, New- York. 

*5. TREMOLO IN THE EYE. October 1962. 
Chinese ink, 8% x 6%". 

6. USUAL OBJECTS._ February 7, 1963. 
Gouache, 13% x 19%". 

Lent by the artist. 

7. UNEVEN AND AMBLING. March 7. 1963. 
Oil, 38% x 51%". 

Collection Jean Planque, Paris. 

8. THE RICH FRUITS OF ERROR. March 12. 1963. 
Oil. 44% x 57V2". 

Collection Max Loreau, Brussels. 

9. I WILL OPT FOR ERROR. March 25. 1963. 
Oil, 44%x57%". 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Elias M. Pinto, New York. 

10. CREASE IN THE LOG. May 26. 1963. 
Gouache. 19% x 26%". 

Lent by the artist. 

11. CLEAN UP SONNY. June 13, 1963. 
Oil. 44% x 57%". 

Lent bv the artist. 

15. ERR AND DEVIATE. Julv 22, 1963. 
Oil, 38% x 51%". 

The Pinto Collection, Paris. 

16. BEING AND SEEMING. Julv 25, 1963. 
Oil. 38% x 51%". 

Lent by Robert Fraser Gallery, London. 

17. THE LIFE OF THE FAMILY. August 19. 1963. 

Oil, 38% x51%". 
Lent by the artist. 

18. THE TIDE OF L'HOURLOUPE. October 11-23.1963. 
Oil. 86% x 118". 

The Pinto Collection, Paris. 

:i 19. PERSONNAGE. November 24. 1963. 
Ink, 8% x 5%". 

20. PERSONNAGE. November 27. 1963. 
Ink. 8%x5%". 
Lent by Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris. 

*21. PERSONNAGE. November 1963. 
Ink, 8% x 5%". 

22. PERSONNAGE. December 4, 1963. 
Ink, 8% x 5%". 
Lent bv the artist. 


23. HOUSE. December 12, 1963. 
Ink. 8V4 x 5%". 

Lent by the artist. 

24. THE FEASTER. January 12, 1964. 
Oil and vinyl, 76% x 51V8". 

Collection The Dallas Museum of Fine Arts. 
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. James H. Clark. 

25. PARADE OF OBJECTS. January 12, 1964. 
Oil, 5iy 8 x76 3 /4". 

Lent by Galerie Beyeler, Basel. 

26. PITCHER. February 3, 1964. 
Ink, 10 x 6%". 

Lent by the artist. 

27. DOLL. February 3, 1964. 
Ink, 10x6 Ms". 

Lent by the artist. 

28. UTENSIL. February 3, 1964. 
Ink, 10 x 6%". 

Lent by the artist. 

29. CARNIVAL OF UTENSILS. February 11, 1964. 

Oii,5i 1 / 8 x63%". 

Lent by Galerie Beyeler, Basel. 

30. INCONSISTENCIES. February 18-March 8, 1964. 
Vinyl, 51% x 307%". 

The Pinto Collection, Paris. 

31. CONJECTURES. March 12, 1964. 
Vinyl on paper, 2578 x 39". 

Collection Mademoiselle Carmen Bebiano, Paris. 

34. I HURRY. March 27, 1964. 
Oil, 76 3 /4x51 %". 

Private collection, New York. 

35. CHAIR. April 11, 1964. 
Vinyl, 76% x 51%". 

The Kate Maremont Foundation, Chicago. 

36. SCATTERED OBJECTS. April 12, 1964. 
Ink, 7% x 10%". 

Lent by the artist. 

37. BUST OF A WOMAN. April 16, 1964. 
Ink, 13% x 8%". 

Lent by the artist. 

38. HOUSE. April 17, 1964. 
Ink, 9% x 8%". 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Miles Fiterman, Minneapolis. 

39. RIFLE IV. April 24, 1964. 
Ink, 6% x 9%". 

Lent by Galerie Beyeler, Basel. 

40. TREE IV. April 26, 1964. 
Ink, 13% x 9%". 

Lent by the artist. 

41. SCISSORS I. May 26, 1964. 
Ink, 10% x 8%". 

Lent by the artist. 

Oil, 35 x 45%". 

Lent by the artist. 

32. THE NOTABLE. March 14, 1964. 
Vinyl on paper, 26% x 19%". 
Lent by the artist. 

33. PERSONNAGE ON HIS BACK. March 1-19, 1964. 
Ink, 10% x 8%". 

Lent by Galerie Jeanne Bucher. Paris. 

43. TYPEWRITER III. June 1, 1964. 
Ink, 8% x 10%". 

Lent by the artist. 

44. TYPEWRITER I. June 29, 1964. 

Oil, 39% x 31%". 

Collection Trevor F. Peck, Montreal. 


45. WHEELBARROW VI. July 11, 1964. 
Ink, 10% x 8%". 

Lent by Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris. 

46. WHEELBARROW II. July 17, 1964. 
Oil, 35 x 45%". 

Lent by Saidenberg Gallery, New York. 

47. WHEELBARROW VIII. July 18, 1964. 
Ink, 10% x 8%". 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. W. B. Dixon Stroud, 
West Grove, Pennsylvania. 

July 26. 1964. 

Oil, 57 % x 44%". 

Lent by Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris. 

49. WHEELBARROW XIX. August 11, 1964. 
Ink, 10% x 8%". 

Lent by the artist. 

50. BED I. August 16. 1964. 
Vinyl, 76% x 51%". 

Collection David Talbot Rice. London. 

51. BED III. August 16, 1964. 
Gouache. 12% x 8%". 
Lent by the artist. 

52. PERSONNAGE IV. October 22, 1964. 
Ink, 10% x 8V4". 

Lent by Saidenberg Gallery, New York. 

53. PERSONNAGE XIII. October 28. 1964. 
Ink, 10% x 8 a /4". 

Lent by Robert Elkon Gallery, New York. 

54. PERSONNAGE XXII. November 5, 1964. 
Ink, 10% x 8V4". 

Collection Dr. and Mrs. Arthur E. Kahn, New York. 

55. PERSONNAGE XXV. November 7, 1964. 
Ink, 10% x 8%". 

Lent by the artist. 

56. THE BRAWLER. November 18, 1964. 
Vinyl, 51 %x38%". 

Lent by Saidenberg Gallery, New York. 

57. THE DOLEFUL MAN. January 5, 1965. 
Oil, 39% x 31%". 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Leigh B. Block. Chicago. 


February 28. 1965. 

Vinyl, 39% x 31%". 

Private Collection, New York. 

March 4, 1965. 

Vinyl. 31% x 39%". 

Lent by Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris. 

62. AMPLIFICATION OF A TAP. March 6, 1965. 
Vinyl, 63% x 51%". 

Collection Stedelijk Museum. Amsterdam. 

63. PARISH FEAST. March 10. 1965. 
Gouache, 19% x 26%". 

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Ralph F. Colin, Jr.. New York. 

64. MUTE ECHO. March 12, 1965. 
Gouache. 19 % x 26". 

Lent by the artist. 

65. GOINGS AND COMINGS. March 16, 1965. 
Gouache with vinyl mounted on canvas, 19% x 26%". 
Collection J.-F. Jaeger. Paris. 

66. NUNC STANS. March 23-24, 30-31. April 1, 1965. 
Vinyl, gouache and collage mounted on canvas, 
26% x\$2Vi". 

Lent by The Archive for Decorative Art, 
University of Lund, Sweden. 

67. EPOKHE. April 10-17. 1965. 
Vinyl on paper, 26% x 123". 

Lent by Galerie Jeanne Bucher. Paris and 
Galerie Beyeler, Basel. 

April 23, 1965. 

Vinyl. 51 %x 38%". 

Lent by Galerie Beyeler. Basel. 

69. TRAIN OF CLOCKS. April 24-28, 1965. 
Vinyl, 49% x 158". 

Lent by FEtat francais. 

70. NUNC STANS. May 16-June 5. 1965. 
Vinyl, 63% x323y 2 ". 

Lent by Galerie Beyeler. Basel and 
Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris. 

71. PLATES, UTENSILS. August 12, 1965. 

Vinyl on paper mounted on canvas, 39% x 31%". 
Lent by the artist. 

58. WHARF. January 15, 1965. 
Gouache, 16% x 24%". 
Lent by the artist. 

February 23, 1965. 

Vinyl, 39% x 31%". 
Lent by the artist. 

72. CASTLE OF BOTTLES. September 2, 1965. 
Vinyl on paper mounted on canvas, 31% x 37%' 
Lent by Robert Elkon Gallery, New York. 

SUGAR BOWL. September 12. 1965. 

Vinyl on paper mounted on canvas, 19% x 26%' 
Lent by Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris. 



September 23. 1965. 

Vinyl on paper mounted on canvas, 28% x 23%' 

Lent by the artist. 

February 26, 1966. 

Vinyl, 34 % x45%". 

Lent by Saidenberg Gallery, New York. 

December 12, 1965. 

Vinyl on paper mounted on canvas, 63% x 23%". 
Lent by Galerie Beyeler, Basel. 

76. COFFEE POT III. December 16, 1965. 

Vinyl on paper mounted on canvas, 41% x 27 %". 
Lent by Galerie Beyeler, Basel. 

77. COFFEE POT V. December 17, 1965. 

Vinyl on paper mounted on canvas, 41 x 27 %". 
Lent by the artist. 

78. BOTTLE III. December 22, 1965. 
Vinyl on paper, 40% x 26%". 

Lent by Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris. 

79. CUP OF TEA IV. December 27, 1965. 
Vinyl, 51% x 38%". 

Lent by Robert Fraser Gallery, London. 

80. BOTTLE V January 2, 1966. 
Vinyl, 67x31 %". 

Collection Mrs. Sidney Solomon, New York. 

81. CUP OF TEA V January 4, 1966. 

Vinyl, 51 ¥4x31 %". 
Lent by the artist. 

ON RIGHT. January 28, 1966. 

Vinyl, 49% x 78%". 

Collection Edouard Cournand, New York. 

83. DOUBLE-BARRELLED GUN. February 3, 1966. 
Vinyl, 49% x 78%". 

Collection Robert Fraser, London. 

84. MECHANICAL MUSIC. February 6, 1966. 
Vinyl, 49% x 78%". 

Lent by the artist. 

85. L'HOURLOUPE GARDEN. February 14, 1966. 
Vinyl, 45% x 35". 

Lent by the artist. 

86. PIANO. February 21, 1966. 
Vinyl, 45% x 35". 

Lent by Robert Fraser Gallery, London. 

*89. ARMCHAIR. February 27, 1966. 
Ink, 11% x 8%". 

90. GAS STOVE II. March 1, 1966. 
Vinyl, 45% x 35". 

Lent by the artist. 

91. SITE WITH PEASANT WOMEN. March 19, 1966. 
Vinyl, 31% x 39%". 

Lent by the artist. 

March 30, 1966. 

Vinyl, 57% x 44%". 
Lent by the artist. 

April 8, 1966. 

Vinyl, 57% x 44%". 
Lent by the artist. 

94. HEAD WITH CHIGNON. April 17, 1966. 
Ink, 10% x 8%". 

Lent by the artist. 

95. VILLA 4. April 17, 1966. 
Ink, 10% x 8%". 

Lent by the artist. 

96. CHAIR. May 25, 1966. 
Ink, 10% x IV*". 
Lent by the artist. 

97. POT OF JAM. June 11, 1966. 

Lent by the artist. 

98. COFFEE POT II. June 18, 1966. 
Ink, 9%x6%". 

Lent by the artist. 

99. LADDER IV. June 22, 1966. 
Ink, 9% x 6 %". 

Lent by the artist. 

100. TREE VI. June 29, 1966. 
Ink, 9% x 6%". 

Lent by the artist. 

101. THE ANXIOUS ONE. July 3, 1966. 
Ink. 9% x 6%". 

Lent by the artist. 

87. GAS STOVE I. February 23, 1966. 
Vinyl, 45% x 35". 
Lent by Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris. 

102. VALISE IX. July 4. 1966. 
Ink, 9% x 6%". 
Lent by the artist. 


Personnage. July 27, 1962. Gouache, 26% x 19%' 

;: 5. Tremolo in the Eye. October 1962. Chinese ink, 8Vi x 6%' 

3. Dog. August 2, 1962. Gouache, 19% x 26 : /4". 

2. Profile of Head. July 29, 1962. Gouache, 19% x 10%". 4. Personnage. August 30, 1962. Collage, 25V4 x 12 1 A' 

6. Usual Objects. February 7, 1963. Gouache, 13V4 x 19%". 

7. Uneven and Ambling. March 7, 1963. Oil, 38V8 x 5P/8' 

8. The Rich Fruit of Error. March 12, 1963. Oil, 44 7 /s x 57%' 

10. Crease in the Log. May 26, 1963. Gouache, 19% x 26V4' 

LI. Clean Up Sonny. June 13, 1963. Oil, 44 7 /s x 57%". 

13. Opera Sconce. July 4, 1963. Oil, 31% x 39%". 

18. The Tide of L'Hourloupe. October 11-23, 1963. Oil, 86%" x 118" 

14. Bank of Ambiguities. July 17, 1963. Oil, 59 x 76%' 

15. Err and Deviate. July 22, 1963. Oil, 38 Vs x 51 Vs". 

16. Being and Seeming. July 25. 1963. Oil, 38% x 51%". 

17. The Life of the Family. August 19, 1963. Oil, 38% x 51%' 

22. Personnage. December 4, 1963. Ink, 8V4 x 5%". 23. House. December 12, 1963. Ink, 8V* x 5%". 

39. Rifle IV. April 24, 1964. Ink, 6% x 9 7 /s". 

30. Inconsistencies. February 18-March 8, 1964. Vinyl, 5lVa x 308*2' 

31. Conjectures. March 12. 1964. Vinyl on paper, 25 Ts x 39". 

The Feaster. January 12, 1964. Oil and vinyl, 76% x 51 Vs". 32. The Notable. March 14. 1961. Vinyl on paper, 26 x /2 x 19%' 

36. Scattered Objects. April 12, 1964. Ink, Vfc x lO 1 /^'. 

35. Chair. April 11, 1964. Vinyl, 76% x 51%' 


29. Carnival of Utensils. February 11, 1964. Oil, oV/s x 63%' 

42. Counterpoint to the Tools. May 29, 1964. Oil, 35 x 45%' 

37. Bust of a Woman. April 16, 1964. Ink, 13V4 x 2,Vi". 41. Scissors I. May 26, 1964. Ink, 10% x 8%' 

38. House. April 17, 1964. Ink, 10 x 6%' 

40. Tree IV. April 26, 1964. Ink, 13 V 4 x 9%' 

43. Typewriter III. June 1. 1964. Ink, 8V 4 x 10%' 

51. Bed III. August 16. 1964. Gouache. 12% x 8V 4 ' 

45. Wheelbarrow VI. July 11. 1964. Ink. 10% x 8W 

49. Wheelbarrow XIX. August 11, 1964. Ink. 10% x 8%". 


47. Wheelbarrow VI 11. July 18. 1964. Ink. 10% x 8 l A". 

52. Personnage IV. October 22. 1964. Vinyl on paper, 10% x 8V4' 

46. Wheelbarrow 11. July 17. 1964. Oil. 35 x 45%' 

33. Personnage on His Back. March 1-19, 1964, Ink. 10%" x 8 x /4" 53. Personnage XIII. October 28, 1964. Ink, 10% x SYa' 

54. Personnage XXII. November 5, 1964. Ink, 10% x 8V4". 55. Personnage XXV. November 7, 1964. Ink, 10% x 8Vi' 

)9. Legendary Figure of a Tap. February 23, 1965. Vinyl, 39% x 31 7 /s' 

58. Wharf. January 15, 1965. Gouache, 16% x 24%' 

63. Parish Feast. March 10. 1965. Gouache, 19% x 26%' 















70. Nunc Stans. May 16-June 5, 1965. Vinyl, 63% x 323 %". (Reproduced in three parts.) , 

64. Mute Echo. March 12. 1965. Gouache. 19% x 26' 

65. Goings and Comings. March 16. 1965. Gouache with vinyl mounted on canvas, 19% x 26%' 

91. Site with Peasant Women. March 19. 1966. Vinyl, 31% x 39%' 

)9. Train of Clocks. April 24-28, 1965. Vinyl, 49 Yt x 158". 

2. Castle of Bottles. September 2, 1965. Vinyl on paper mounted on canvas, 31 7 /s x 37%' 

71. Plates, Utensils. August 12, 1965. Vinyl on paper mounted on canvas, 39% x 31%". 

74. Coffee Pot, Cup, and Sugar Bowl. September 23, 1965. Vinyl on paper mounted on canvas, 28% x 23%' 

73. Cup and Saucer, Coffee Pot, Plate, Sugar Bowl. September 12, 1965. Vinyl on paper mounted on canvas, 19% x 26%' 

75. Theatricalization of Objects. December 12. 1965. Vinyl on paper mounted on canvas, 63% x 23%", 


80. Bottle V. January 2, 1966. Vinyl, 67 x 31 Vz". 


82. Domestic Site With Swordfish, Inca Head, and Small Armchair On Right. January 28, 1966. Vinyl, 49V4 x 78%". 

85. UHourloupe Garden. February 14, 1966. Vinyl, 35 x 45%' 

83. Double-Barrelled Gun. February 3. 1966. Vinyl, 49 V* x 78%' 

Reasonable Figure of Scissors. February 26. 1966. Vinyl, 34% x 45%' 



m Armchair. February 27, 1966. Ink, llVfe x 8%". 

95. Villa 4. April 17, 1966. Ink, 10% x 8V4' 

94. Head with Chignon. April 17, 1966. Ink, 10% x 8Vi' 

101. The Anxious One. July 3, 1966. Ink. 97s x 6V2". 

96. Chair. May 25. 1966. Ink. 10 7 /s x 7V4". 

99. Ladder IK June 22. 1966. Ink, 9% x 6%' 

97. Pot of Jam. June 11, 1966. Ink, 9% x 6y2' 

100. Tree VI. June 29, 1966. Ink, 9% x 6% 


bv Diane ^ aldman 

The bibliography refers solely to the period of 
L'Hourloupe, 1962-66. Writings and book illustrations 
by Dubuffet are given first. The one-man exhibitions in 
the third section are wholly devoted to L'Hourloupe : 
those in the fourth section mix L'Hourloupe with other 
periods. The reviews are a partial listing. 


1. UHourloupe, Paris, Noel Arnaud. Editions "Le petit 

Jesus", no. 10. 1963. Calligraphic text and ball- 
point drawings cut out and pasted together. 

2. Foire aux Mirages, August 1964. Statement, catalogue 

"L'Hourloupe". Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris. 
December 1964. Reprinted in bibliography nos. 

References to the Compagnie de l'Art Brut publi- 
cations (nos. 3-8) are restricted to Dubuffet "s writ- 

3. L'Art Brut 1, Paris. Compagnie de l'Art Brut, 1964. 

"Le prisonnier de Bale" fin collaboration with 
Dr. Louis Lambelet I . pp. 7-25 : "Palanc l'Ecri- 
turiste". pp. 27-47; "Les dessins mediumniques 
de facteur Lonne". pp. 49-63: "Miguel Hernan- 
dez", pp. 65-75: "Le lambris de Clement"', pp. 77- 
112: "Heinrich Anton M.", pp. 131-143; "Hum- 
bert Ribet", pp. 145-150. 

4. L'Art Brut 3, Paris, Compagnie de l'Art Brut, 1965. 

"Le Mineur Lesage", pp. 5-45; "Salingardes 
lAubergiste", pp. 47-57: "Le Cabinet du Pro- 
fessor Ladame". pp. 59-95: "Les Telegrammes de 
Charles Jaufret", pp. 97-121. 

5. L'Art Brut 4. Paris. Compagnie de l'Art Brut, 1965. 

"Scottie Wilson" (in collaboration with Victor 
Musgrave and Andrew de Maine), pp. 5-31; 
"Guillaume" (in collaboration with Dr. Jean 
Dequeker). pp. 57-81: "Paul End", pp. 83-99; 
"Moindre l'Egyptologue"', pp. 101-127; "L'ecrit 
du Comte de Bon Sauveur", pp. 129-137; "Jac- 
queline", pp. 139-145. 

6. L'Art Brut 5, Paris. Compagnie de l'Art Brut. 1965. 

"Le Philateliste", pp. 5-19; "Broderies d'Elisa". 
pp. 22-43: "Joseph Crepin". pp. 44-63; "Rose 
Aubert", pp. 64-73; "Gaston le zoologue", pp. 74- 

7. L'Art Brut 6, Paris, Compagnie de l'Art Brut. 1966. 

"La double vie de Laure". pp. 69-101 : "Simone 
Marye \ pp. 103-121 : "Anai's". pp. 123-131 : "Robe 
nuptiale et tableaux brodes de Marguerite", pp. 

8. L'Art Brut 7, Paris. Compagnie d lArt Brut, 1966. 

"Haut Art DAJoi'se", pp. 7-21. 




9. Mordicus, Ales, France. P. A. Benoit, 1962. Poems by 
Kay Sage with ten drawings by Jean Dubuflet. 

10. Le mirivis des naturgies, Paris, Edition du College du 

Pataphysique. 1963. Text by Andre Martel. cal- 
ligraphy and sixteen lithographs by Jean Dubuflet. 
Printed by Jean Dubuflet. 

11. Rhinozeros, Hamburg, K. H. Butziger, 1963, no. 8. 

Calligraphic text in French and German by Jean 

12. Tremolo sur Toeil, Veilhes. Lavaur, France, Gaston 

Puel, 1963. Calligraphic text and drawings by 
Jean Dubuffet. Printed by Jean Dubuffet. 

13. Catalogue des travaux de Jean Dubuffet. Paris Circus, 

Paris. Jean-Jacques Pauvert, 1965. vol. XIX. Intro- 
duction by Max Loreau; illustrations, comments, 
letters and statements by the artist: texts by 
Renato Barilli, Hubert Damisch. Edith Boissonnas. 
Bibliography. I Definitive book on the period pre- 
ceding L'Hourloupe.) 

14. arnaud, noel. "Les Jargons", Bizarre, Paris, nos. 32- 

33. first quarter. 1964, pp. 117-118. 

15. limbour, georges. "Jean Dubuffet: L'Hourloupe ou 

de l'envoutement", XX siecle, Paris, vol. 26, no. 
24, December 1964, pp. 33-40. 

16. loreau, max. "Dubuffet et le voyage au centre de la 

perception", Les Temps Modernes, Paris, no. 223, 
December 1964, pp. 1018-1049; and no. 224. Jan- 
uary 1965, pp. 1282-1313. 

17. damisch, Hubert. "Filagramm-es : l'oeuvre. Fart, 

Touvre d'art": "Methode seconde", Mercure de 
France, Paris, vol. 352, no. 1215, January 1965. 
pp. 100-113. 

18. trucchi, lorenza. Jean Dubuffet, Rome, De Luca, 


19. argan. G. c. "L'Antropologo Dubuffet", La Botte e il 

Violino, Rome, January 1966, pp. 21-24. 

20. Reprinted in Art and Artists, London, vol. 1, no. 
1. April 1966. pp. 12-15. translation by G. Davis. 

21. de mandiargues. andre pieyre. "Les 'ustensiles uto- 

piques' de Jean Dubuffet", L'Oeil, Paris, no. 136, 
April 1966, pp. 18-25. 

22. rouve, pierre. ""The Tender Terrorist". Art and 

Artists, London, vol. 1. no. 1. April 1966, pp. 16-19. 

23. "Painting: Shock Treatment", Time, New York, April 

22, 1966, p. 78. 

24. hughes, Robert. "Dubuffet and the .Myth of Inno- 

cence". Studio International, London, vol. 171, no. 
877, May 1966, pp. 175-183. 

25. "L'Index; Connaissance des Arts 1966", Connaissance 

des Arts, Paris, no. 172, June 1966. p. 92. ("The 
best living painters classified by a panel of ex- 
perts". Dubuffet 24 voles, third place) . 

26. Thompson, david. "London Commentary: Dubuffet's 

'Hourloupe' paintings", Studio International, Lon- 
don, vol. 172, no. 879, July 1966, pp. 31, 33. 



27. L'Hourloupe di Jean Dubuffet, Centro Internazionale 
delle Arti e del Costume. Palazzo Grassi. Venice. June 
15-September 13. 1964. Text by Paolo Marinotti, "Con- 
trosole". and Renato Barilli, "L'Hourloupe", Eng- 
lish and French translations. 

28. Reviews: dorfles, gillo. "Le Mostre a Palazzo Grassi 

del Centro Internazionale delle Arti e del 
Costume". Art International. Lugano, vol. 
VIII. no. 4. May 1964. pp. 66, 71, 72. 

29. sciortino, Giuseppe. "Mostra d'Arte in 
Italia: Allegria di Dubuffet". La Fiera Let- 
teraria, Rome, vol. 19, no. 27, July 5. 1964, 
p. 4. 

30. revel, jean-francois. "XXXII Biennale de 
\enise: Triomphe du Realisme National- 
iste". L'Oeil, Paris, nos. 115-116. July-Aug- 
ust. 1964, pp. 7-8. 

31. hodin, j. p. "The Master of L'Hourloupe", 
The Arts Review, London, vol. 16. no. 17. 
September 5-19, 1964, p. 23. 

32. branzi. silvio. "Lettera da Venezia: A Pal- 
azzo Grassi". Art International, Lugano, vol. 
VIII. no. 7. September 25. 1964, pp. 61-62. 

33. gassiot-talabot. gerald. "La Derniere Meta- 
morphose de Dubuffet". Art Internationa!. 
Lugano, vol. VIII, no. 7, September 25. 1964, 
pp. 55-56. 

34. bonnefoi. Genevieve. "Actualites : Jean 
Dubuffet. le desorienteur", Les Lettres Nou- 
velles, Paris, vol. 12, September-October, 
1964. pp. 315-318. 

35. deroudille. rene. "A Venise Sante et tonus 
de 'L'Hourloupe' de Dubuffet". Aujourd'hui, 
Paris, vol. 18, no. 47. October 19, 1964. 
p. 42. 

36. boissonnas, edith. "Les Arts: L'Hourloupe 
de Jean Dubuffet", La Nouvelle Revue Fran- 
caise, Paris, vol. 12. no. 144, December 1, 
1964, pp. 1126-1127. 

37. LIMBOUR, georges. "L'Hourloupe a Venise", 
College de Pataphysique, Paris, no. 27, Jan- 
uary 18. 1965, pp. 128-129. 

38. L'Hourloupe gouaches: Jean Dubuffet, Galerie Claude 
Bernard. Paris. December 1964. Text reprinted from 
bibliography no. 17. 

39. Jean Dubuffet: L'Hourloupe, Galerie Jeanne Bucher. 
Paris. December 1964-January 1965. Text by Jean 
Dubuffet. "Foire aux Mirages", English and German 

40. Reviews: lacoste, michel conil. "Paris Commen- 

tary: Dubuffet's Hourloupe— tour de force", 
Studio International, London, vol. 169, no. 
861. January 1965. pp. 30-32. 

41. hahn. otto. "Lettre de Paris". Art Inter- 
national, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 1, February 
1965, p. 53. 

42. moulin, raoul-jean. "L'Actuabte a Paris", 
Cimaise, Paris, vol. 12, no. 72, February- 
May. 1965. p. 83. 

43. michelson, annette. "Paris Letter" Art 
International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 2, March 
1965, pp. 39-40. 

L'Hourloupe: Dubuffet. Saidenberg Gallery, New 
York, January 4-February 12, 1966. 

44. Reviews: Canada Y. john. "Art: Dubuffet 's World of 

'Hourloupe* "". The New York Times, New 
York. Saturday. January" 8, 1966. 

45. genauer, emilv. New York Herald Tribune. 
New York, Saturday, January 8, 1966. 

46. willard. charlotte. "In the Art Galleries". 
New York Post, New York. Sunday. January 
30. 1966. p. 30. 

47. levin, kim. Art News, New York, vol. 64. 
no. 9. January 1966, p. 12. 

48. Mitchell, fred. Pictures on Exhibit, New 
York. vol. 29, no. 5, February 1966, pp. 14-15. 

49. Roberts, Colette. "L'Hourloupe par Jean 
Dubuffet", F ranee- Amerique, New York. 
February 1966. 

50. benedikt. Michael. "New York Letter", Art 
International. Lugano, vol. X, no. 3. March 
20. 1966. pp. 55-56. 

51. Adrian, dennis. "New York", Artforum, Los 
Angeles, vol. 4. no. 7. March 1966. p. 51. 

52. jacobs, jay. "In the Galleries: Jean Dub- 
uffet at Saidenberg", Arts, New York, vol. 
40, no. 5. March 1966. pp. 57-58. 

53. Nunc Stans, Epokhe, cycle de L'Hourloupe, Galerie 
Jeanne Bucher, Paris, April-May. 1966. Text by 
Charles Estienne, "Le Ring et la Salle". 

54. Jean Dubuffet: Recent Paintings, Robert Fraser Gal- 
lery. London. April 20-May 28. 1966. Text by Lawrence 
Alloway. "Lstensiles Utopiques": and Andre Pieyre 
de Mandiargues. bibliography no. 21 reprinted as "Les 
Objets de L'Hourloupe". with English translation. 



55. Jean Dubuffet; Tekeningen, gouaches, Stedelijk Mu- 
seum, Amsterdam, November 26, 1964-January 11, 1965. 
Text by Max Loreau. 

56. The Lithographs of Jean Dubuffet, The Philadelphia 
Museum of Art. Department of Prints and Drawings, 
Philadelphia, November 18. 1964-January 10, 1965. 
Foreword, Evan Turner; preface, Kneeland McNulty; 
text, N. Richard Miller; '"Notion of Beauty" (excerpt 
from "Anticultural Positions", notes for a lecture at 
the Arts Club of Chicago, December 20, 1951) , "Notes 
on Lithographs", Jean Dubuffet. 

57. Reviews: donohoe, victoria. "The Painter Who 

Once Scandalized Paris : Art Should Never 
Bore Us", The Philadelphia Enquirer, 
Philadelphia, Sunday, November 8, 1964, 

58. donohoe, victoria. "Exhibition of Dubuffet 
at Museum", The Philadelphia Enquirer, 
Philadelphia, Sunday, November 22, 1964, 
"Art News". 

59. grafley, dorothy. "L'Art Brut", The Sun- 
day Bulletin, Philadelphia, Sunday, Novem- 
ber 22, 1964. 

60. grafley, dorothy. "The Cult of Dubuffet". 
Art in Focus, Philadelphia, vol. 16, no. 3, 
December 1964, p. 1. 

61. Jean Dubuffet, Galerie Beyeler, Basel. February 20- 
April 30, 1965. Text by Jean Dubuffet, "Positions anti- 
culturelles", see bibliography no. 56. 

62. Reviews: c.h. "Basel: Jean Dubuffet: Galerie Bey- 

eler", Werk, Winterthur, Switzerland, vol. 
52, no. 4, April 1965, pp. 96-97 (supplement). 

63. dienst, rolf-gunter. "Dubuffet als Kiinstler 
und anti-Kiinstler; Eine Retrospektive in 
der Basler Galerie Beyeler", Das Kunst- 
werk, Baden-Baden, vol. 19, no. 1, July 
1965, pp. 41, 44. 

64. 100 Obras de Jean Dubuffet, Centro de Artes Visuales, 
Instituto Torcuato Di Telia, Buenos Aires, May 1965. 
Text by Francois Pluchart. 

Jean Dubuffet, Gimpel & Hanover Galerie, Zurich, 
August 27-September 29, 1965. 

65. Review: curjel, dr. hans. "Zurich: Jean Dubuffet: 

Gimpel & Hanover Galerie", Werk, Winter- 
thur. Switzerland, vol. 52, no. 11, November 
1965, pp. 269-270 (supplement) . 
Jean Dubuffet, Galerie Rudolf Zwirner, Cologne, Octo- 
ber 8-November, 1965. 

66. Review: sommer, ed. "Benefit aus Deutschland", Art 

International, Lugano, vol. X, no. 1, January 
20, 1966, p. 77. 

67. Jean Dubuffet Retrospective, Dallas Museum of Fine 
Arts, Dallas, March 16-April 17, 1966, Text by Jean 
Dubuffet. "Anticultural Positions", see bibliography 
no. 56; "Landscaped Tables, Landscapes of the Mind, 
Stones of Philosophy" (Excerpt from essay published 
by Pierre Matisse Gallery. New York, for an exhibition, 
February 12-March 1, 1952) ; "Memoir on the Develop- 
ment of My Work from 1952" (excerpt from The Work 
of Jean Dubuffet, The Museum of Modern Art, New 
^ork. 1962) : "Image Fair", see bibliography no. 39. 

68. Jean Dubuffet: Drawings, Institute of Contemporary 
Arts, The Arts Council of Great Britain, London, 
March 25-April 30. 1966. Text by Georges Limbour. 

69. Reviews: laughton, bruce. "London Galleries: Du- 

buffet Drawings", Arts Review, London, vol. 
18. no. 6. April 2, 1966, p. 142. 

70. Rosenthal, t. g. "Round the Art Galleries'", 
The Listener, London, vol. 75, no. 1935, 
April 28, 1966, p. 622. 

71. Jean Dubuffet: Paintings, Tate Gallery, The Arts 
Council of Great Britain, London, April 23-May 30. 
1966. Text by Alan Bowness. Bibliography. 

72. Review: lynton, norbert. "London Letter". Art In- 

ternational, Lugano, vol. X, no. 6, Summer 
1966, p. 105. 

73. webb, Michael. "Painter Without Preoccupations", 
Country Life, London, April 28, 1966, pp. 1114-1115. 

74. Jean Dubuffet, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, June 
11-August 28, 1966. Version of the Tate Gallery exhibi- 
tion, see bibliography no. 71. Text by Dubuffet (ex- 
cerpts from various writings) . 




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PHOTOGRAPHIC CREDITS All photographs but the following were made by P. L. Thiessard, Nice, France : 

Robert E. Mates, nos. 9, 12, 80. 

Exhibition 66/5 October 1966— February 1967 

3,000 copies of this catalogue 

designed by Herbert Matter 

have been printed by Sterlip Press 

in September 1966 

for the Trustees of The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation 

on the occasion of the exhibition 

"Jean Dubuffet: 1962-1966"